自考本科英语二复习资料

 时间:2018-11-14 15:35:40 贡献者:蚂蚁有力量

导读:自考“英语(二)”复习资料 第一单元 1.常考单词: goal,objective,accomplish, predict,accompany,implement, tendency,achievement,argue, budget,define,entity 2. 常考词组: in the way,in part,point of v

自考本科英语二复习资料
自考本科英语二复习资料

自考“英语(二)”复习资料 第一单元 1.常考单词: goal,objective,accomplish, predict,accompany,implement, tendency,achievement,argue, budget,define,entity 2. 常考词组: in the way,in part,point of view,contribute to,to apply for, in hand,to turn down 3. 常考句子: 1)A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. 2)Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance. 3)If there is no choice,there is no decision to be made. 4)For managers every decision has constraints based on politics, procedures,laws,precedents and the like. 5)For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion. 6)Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is,which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. 7)In the larger scheme of things,however,increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization. 8)Some of these objectives are more important than others,but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department. 第二单元 1.常考单词: escape,explode,collapse, shrink,gravity,measurement, basis,launch,convincing, companion,speculation,swallow, operate,to make use of,a great many,above all 2. 常考句子: 1)Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape. 2) The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.3)Some people think that the Start of Bethlehem could have been a supernova. 4)If a man fell into a black hole, he would think that he reached the center of it very quickly. 5)It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes. 6) On the other hand, scientists have suggested that every advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind. 第三单元 1.常考单词: weaken deteriorate debate legal request criterion ensure oppose tradition consideration disabled burden vulnerable prohibition sensitive 2. 常考词组: to debate on to make request for be opposed to to take … into account 3. 常考句子: 1)Affected with a serious disease,van Wendal was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating. 2)Van Wendel's last three months of life before being given a final,lethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands. 3)The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shown,it starts a nationwide debate on the subject. 4)What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people haven't the right. 第四单元 1.常考单词: demestic statistics diplomat exploit campaign execute convict despite de serving shelf minimum status deport 2. 常考句子: 1)There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain. 2)Of these 20,000,just under 2,000 are being exploited and abused by their employers. 3)The sad condition of women working as domestics around theworld received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicized cases. 4)A Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder,despite protests form various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established. 5)She used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka. 6)Because she found it difficult to feed her four children,she accepted a job working as a domestic in London. 7)So if they do complain,they risk being deported. 第五单元 1.常考单词: Musician,rhythmic,distinct, consciousness, originate, readily, instrument,electronic,thereby, passive,participant 2. 常考词组: to take place to take over to take on in a sense at a stretch to serve as in advance for the sake of 3. 常考句子: 1)The new music was built out of materials already in existence. 2)Folk music,old and modern, was popular among college students. 3)They freely took over elements form jazz,from American country music. 4)With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could. 第六单元 1.常考单词: efficiency increasingly inst all personnel expose reduc tion completion specific s witch critical intensity s cale defective 2. 常考词组: in that in question plenty of 3. 常考句子: 1)Most of today's robots are employed in the automotive industry, where they are programmed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies. 2)Robots,already taking over human tasks in the automotive field are beginning to be seen,although

to a lesser degree,in other industries as well. 3)The robots used in nuclear power plants handle the radioactive materials,preventing human personnel from being exposed to radiation. 4) Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task,they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one. 5)Engineers skilled in microelectronics and computer technology are developing artificial vision for robots. 6)With the ability to “see”, robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials. 7) Anyone wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. 第七单元 1.常考单词: research attach underlie r elevant positive possession desirable relaxation occu pation urban acquire parti cipation 2. 常考词组: be concerned with be relevant to to set … as objective 3. 常考句子: 1)People in advanced industrial societies are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure. 2) The importance people attach to paid holidays and the rapid development of services for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern. 3)The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual. 4)Since leisure is basically self-determined,one is able to take to one's interests and preferences and get involved in an activity in ways that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction. 5)Basically,such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and a belief that Leisure can and should be put to good use.6)For example,the degree to which and the ways in which a school encourages participation in games, sports and cultural pursuits are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students. 7)Schools usually set as their educational objective the attainment of a balanced development of the person. 8)The more seriously this is sought,the more likely positive attitudes towards leisure as well as academic work will be encouraged. 第八单元 1.常考单词: flight negotiation transport overcome internal externa l rhythm feasible assumpti on promote 2. 常考词组: effect on to blame… on to advantage now that out of step to leave … alone 3. 常考句子: 1)The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time. (para.1) 2)The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize. (para.2) 3)He later blamed his poor judgement on Jet Lag. (para.3) 4)Now that we understand what Jet lag is,we can go some way to overcoming it.(para.4) 5)The other belongs in our internal clocks which,left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour yes,25 - rhythm.(para.5) 6)In time the physiological system will reset itself,but it does take time. (para7) 7)One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. (para.8) 8)It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. (para.9) 第九单元 1.常考单词: classify approximate proport ion appreciation acknowledge alter lengthen wealthy neglect expectation 2. 常考词组:to approximate to resistance to to cope with attribute … to 3. 常考句子: 1)Nation classified as “aged” when they have 7percent of more of their people aged 65 or above. (para.1) 2)The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth,the older its population is likely to be - at least,for any future that concerns us now. 3)The older you are now,of course, the greater this proportion will be,and greater still if you are a woman. 4)If you are now in your thirties, you ought to be aware that you can expect to live nearly one third of the rest of your life after the age of 60. 第十单元 1.常考单词: election vote certainty lo yalty decline democrat str ategy pursue impact headqu arters economy stir congre ss representative 2. 常考词组: to identify……as impact on 3. 常考句子: 1)Candidates try to project a strong leadership image. (para.4) 2)Whether voters accept this image,however,depends more on external factors than on a candidate's personal characteristics. (para. 4) 此句注意主语从句作主语。

3)A year later,with the nation's economy in trouble, Bush's approval rating dropped below 40 percent. 4)Candidates are particularly concerned with winning the states which have the largest population. 5)Clinton received only 43 percent of the popular vote in 1992,compared with Bush's 38 percent and Perot's 19 percent. 第十一单元 1.常考单词: disorder irrelevant misleading irresponsible eventual replace partly undergo suitable to do research

into be central to be irrelevant to to aim for 2. 常考句子: 1)The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics. 2)Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results. 3)People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work. 4)It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals. 5)The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. 6)Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects. 7)The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years. 8)This is partly due to alternatives and partly to the fact that experiments are better designed so fewer need to be used. 9)Professor David Morton of the department is involved in animal research and is concerned with reducing animal suffering as much as possible. 10)This includes keeping them in more suitable cages. include 后面接动名词作宾语。

11)In the US,one experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat's leg. involve 后面接动名词作宾语。

12)When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body,or diseases of the brain for example,we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals. When it comes to 当提到 … 的 时候 第十二单元 1.常考单词: symptom intellectual detail initial inventor confront sensitivity reflection creativity character tra ce modest investment to substitute … for be contraryto to put off be confronted with to gaze at be unaware of to impress…on be free from be beneficial to 2. 常考句子: 1)At its best,daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life. 2)There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity. (para.2) 3)Most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. (para.2) 4)Not only are they less able to deal with the pressure of day-to-day existence,but also their self -control and self-direction become endangered. (para.2) 5)But its beneficial effects go beyond this. (para. 3) Go beyond 表示“超越 …,不仅 仅是 … ” 6) Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments. Take advantage of 利用 7)Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with,he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. (para.7) 8) Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them. 第十三单元 1.常考单词: compel voluntary underta ke coincide manual efficiency compulsion di vision eliminate boring amusement so far as …knows to coincide with attitude toward to go in for 2. 常考句子: 1)He cannot be really happy if h is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing. 2)Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends,not on the job itself,but on the tastes of the individual who undertake it. 3)The difference does not, for example,coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job. 4)So that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring,and the more hours he is free to play,the better. 第十四单元 1.常考单词: device compassion grab belonging threatening convince foster persuasi on avail suspect profound to convince sb. to do sth. to comment on 2. 常考句子: 1)It was a microcassette found in Kathleen Weinstein's shirt pocket that not only led police to her alleged killer but also revealed the New Jersey teacher to be a woman of extraordinary courage and compassion. 本句是个强调句,另外注意 found 的用法 2) It was there, police believe, that Weinstein was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag. 本句是强调句。

3) Weinstein's body, with hands and feet bound,was discovered by a hiker on March17. 4)But before she died she somehow slipped the microcassette into her pocket without her killer knowing it. 第十五单元 1.常考单词: solely content sensible persist vital logic evaluate raw ultimate functional extension undue concrete conquer error prolo ng technician proof possess to pull down to mistake…for to distinguish between to come to terms with to end in to reflect on to come about to speculate on 2.常考句子: 1) Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends involved in vital research.

2)Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others. 注意本句的倒装形式。

并且注意 “ connect … to ”表示“把 … 与 … 连接起来”。

3)The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom. 本句中注意“ tendency ”后面 要接动词不定式作定语。

另外 “ mistake … for ”表示“把 … 错 认为 … ” 4)For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it. 词组按照第一个词的字母顺序排列。

动词不定式前的符号 to 均略去,形容 词前面也不加系动词 be A 1.a few 几个 2.a good deal 许多 3.a good many 许多 4.a great amount of 大量的 5.a great deal 大量的 6.a great many 很多 7.a little 一 些,一点点 8.a lot of 许多,大 量的 9.a number of 若干,许多 10.a variety of 种种,若干不同的 11.above all 首先,首要 12.according to 根据 13.after all 毕竟,终究 14.ahead of 在……前 15.all at once 突然 16.all but 几乎,差一点,除 了……都 17.all in all 总的说 来 18.all of a sudden 突然 19.all over 到处,遍及 20.all right 行,可以 21.all the better 更好,愈加 22.all the more 更加,愈加 23.all the same 仍然,尽管如此 24.all the time 一直,始终 25.all together 同时,一起 26.along with 与……一道,与…… 同时 27.among other things 除了其 他方面,此外 28.and so forth 等等 29.and so on 等等 30.and the like 等等,诸如此类 31.anything but 除……外什么 都 32.apart from 除去,撇开,除……之外 33.as a matter of fact 事实上, 其实 34.as a result 作为结果,因此(插入语) 35.as a result of 作为……的 结果 36.as a rule 通常,一般来说37.as a whole 总的来说,作为 一个整体 38.as far as 就……而言,至于 39.as far as…be concerned 就……而言 40.as follows 如下 41.as for 至于,关于 42.as if 好像,似乎,仿佛 43.as long as 只要,如果,既 然,由于 44.as regards 在……方面,关于 45.as soon as 一 …… 就 46.as such 像这样的,就这点而论 47.as though 好像,似乎,仿佛 48.as to 至于,关于 49.as usual 照理,像平常一样 50.as well 也,又,同样地 51.as well as 除……之外 (也) , 既……又 52.as yet 到目前 为止,到当时为止 53.aside from 此外,除……还 有 54.at a disadvantage 处于不利地位 55.at a guess 凭猜测 56.at a loss 困惑不解,茫然不知所 措 57.at a stretch 连续不断地 58.at a time 同时,一次 59.at all 丝毫 (不) , 一点 (不) 60.at all costs 无论如何,不惜任 何代价 61.at all events 不管怎样,无 论如何 62.at all times 时常,有时 63.at any rate 无论如何,至少 64.at best 最多,充其量 65.at ease 舒适 66.at first 起初,最初 67.at first sight 一眼看去 68.at first thought 乍一想 69.at hand 在附近,近在手头 70.at intervals 不时,处处 71.at large 普遍地,一般地, 自由地 72.at last 最 终,终于 73.at least 至少,起码,无论 如何 74.at length 终 于,详细的 75.at most 至多,不超过 76.at no time 从不,决不 77.at once 立刻 78.at present 现在,目前 79.at one time 曾经,有一时期 80.at random 随机地,任意地 81.at sea 在海上,在航海中, 迷惑,茫然 82.at what 而且 83.at the cost of 以……为代 价 84.at the mercy of 受……支配,受……控制85.at the moment 此刻,目前 86.at the rate of 以……速度或比 率 87.at the same time 同时,然 而,不过 88.at the sight of 一看见就 89.at times 有时候 B 1.back and forth 来回地,反复 地 2.back up 支持 3.bear… in mind 记住 4.because of 因为,由于 5.before long 不久 6.long before 很久以前 7.beyond (all) doubt 无疑 8.beyond question 毫无问题,无可 争辩 9.both…and (两者)都 10.break away 破除,脱离 11.break down 把…分解为 12.break in 打断(说话),闯进 13.break into 强行进入 14.break…into 分成(部分) 15.break off 弄断,打断 16.break out 突然发生,爆发 17.break through 突破,打通 18.break up 打碎, 结束, 驱散, 散开, 分解 19.bring…into effect 使…发 生作用 20.bring…into play 发挥,发扬,调动(积极性等) 21.bring about 带来,造成,引 起 22.bring down 降 低,减少,击落 23.bring forward 提出(建议论 据等)把…提前 24.bring out 使显现,显示,生产,使产生 25.bring over 把…带来,使转 变 26.bring up 抚养 27.build up 建立,增强 28.but for 倘没有,要不是 29.by accident 偶然地 30.by all means 尽一切办法 31.by and by 不久,迟早 32.by chance 偶然 33.by far 最, …得多 34.by hand 用手,用体力 35.by means of 通过, 利用, 用… 36.by mistake 错误地 37.by nature 生来,天生,就其 本性而言 38.by no means 决不 39.by reason of 由于 40.by the way 顺便(说),附带地 说 41.by virtue of 借助,由于 42.by way of 经过,经由,通过…方 法 C

1.call for 要求;邀请 2.call off 取消 3.call on 拜访,访问 4.call up 打电话;召集;使想起 5.can not help but 禁不住 6.carry on 经营;进行;继续 7.care for 照顾;喜欢 8.carry off 拿走 9.carry out 执行,贯彻;进行 到底 10.carry over 延期;运输 11.catch one‘s breath 喘息; 屏息 12.catch one‘s eye 引人注目 13.catch sight of 看见,发现 14.catch up with 赶上 15.check in 办理登记手续 16.check out 办理结帐手续 17.cheer up 高兴,振作起来 18.chear up 清理 19.come about 发生 20.come around 顺便过来 21.come into force 开始有效 22.come into play 开始起作用 23.come into power 上台;开始 掌权 24.come off 从… 离开;进行 25.come on 来吧 26.come out 出版,发表 27.come round 顺便过来 28.come though 经历 29.come to 苏醒,共计 30.come to terms with 达成协议 31.come true 实现 32.come up 出现 33.come up against 碰到 34.come up to 达到 35.come up with 追上,提出 36.comment on 对…评论 37.concerned with 关于;涉及; 忙于;关心;关切 38.contrary to 与…相反 39.convict…of 证明…有罪,宣 判…有罪 40.cope with 对付;处理 41.count on/upon 指望,依靠 42.cover up 掩饰,掩护 43.cut down on 减少对…之消耗 量 44.cut in 打断, 插嘴 45.cut off 切去,割掉;切断; 使孤立 46.cut out 删 掉 47.cut short 缩短,打断…(谈 话) D 1.day by day 日复一日 2.deal with 对待,处理 3.die down 枯萎,凋谢 4.die out 消失,灭绝5.dig into 深入钻研 6.dig out 发掘出,发现 7.do away with 废除 8.do one‘s best 尽全力;尽量 9.do with 处理;忍受 10.do without 没有…也行,将就 11.draw in 进站 12.draw on 吸收;依靠;临近 13.draw up 起草,制订 14.drop by 顺便访问 15.drop in 顺便访问 16.drop off 减弱 17.drop out 退出 18.due to 因为 E 1.each other 彼此 2.either…or 或者…或者,不是…就 是 3.end in 以…告终 4.end up 结束 5.even if 即使 6.even though 即使 7.every now and then 时时,不 时的 8.every other 每隔 一个 9.except for 除了…外;除去; 撇开 自考“英语(二)”汉译英应试技巧 1.事先筹划,再来做题 在翻译每一个句子时,一定要事 先筹划:先要想好译成什么样的英语 句子结构,是简单句还是复合句,或 者是强调句、倒装句。

如果选用了复 合句,那么要明确哪部分是主句,从 句采用的形式,是定语从句、状语从 句还是其他的从句。

在一个句子内, 主语是什么,谓语用什么时态,是主 动还是被动,要不要虚拟语气,这些 都要事先筹划好。

然后动笔进行翻译。

遣词造句过程中,要格外注意一些细 节问题:1)仔细斟酌、选用最能确切 表达原文意思的英文单词或词组;2) 名词的复数形式,动词的不规则变化, 主谓语的一致性:3)单词的拼写,标 点符号,大小写,冠词的使用等。

任 何一个细节注意不到都可能出错丢 分。

2.灵活处理,提高把握 在翻译过程中,有时可能碰到一 些英语单词不会写,这时千万不能灰 心丧气,甚至放弃整个句子。

这时可 以寻找意思相近而自己熟悉的词或词 组来代替。

最好不要把那个词空着, 更不要用汉字去替代。

对句子的结构同样也可以灵活处 理,有些没把握的结构,可以用比较 有把握的结构来代替。

例如,复合句 没有把握,可以用两个简单句来表示; 分词做状语没有把握,可以用状语从句来代替等等。

比如:这个由 10 人组 成的委员会一致支持这一决定。

The panel/committee/board consisting of / which was composed of which was made up of which consist of 10 members supported the decision with one voice /all supported the decision . 3.注意书写和卷面整洁 这个问题本来可以不提,但常常 被考生忽略。

有的考生在考试中信手 写来,一些不良的书写习惯也带了进 来,例如“r”“V”,不分,“i” “l”,不分……,有的常常遗忘标点 符号,从而造成不必要的丢分。

在对此题进行备考复习时,首先 对以往做过的“汉译英”作业进行复 习,特别是作业中的错误之处,要进 行思考,以求提高水平和技巧。

其余的,则可和总复习一起进行, 如语法复习、课文复习、单词复习等。

但在复习过程中,对一些重点句、重 点语法现象,除了记忆之外也要往 “汉译英‘这方面想一想,自己给自 己提问题:若要考汉译英,这部分可 能出什么类型题?这样就会印象更 深。

从最近几年的考试情况来看,汉 译英主要包括定语从句、形容词或副 词的比较级、被动语态、虚拟语气、 it 作形式主语或形式宾语、强调句型 等。

当然,汉译英的目的是将汉语的 句意用规范的英语表达出来,用什么 语法结构和词语是手段问题,只要译 文的句意与原文一致,不出现重大的 语法错误,拼写正确,就符合翻译的 要求。

五、英译汉(Translation from English into Chinese) 应试技巧 1.准确理解 1)了解英汉表达手段的重大差别 A)英语习惯用被动语态,而汉语 习惯用主动语态。

汉语句子时常没有 主语,而英语句子除了个别特殊情况 (如祈使句、感叹句)以外,不能没 有主语。

所以,在翻译时,-定要把握 英汉两种语言的不同表达习惯,既要 忠实于原文,又要符合汉语的表达习 惯。

例如:Something must be done to protect our environment from further pollution. (必须采取措施,使我们的环境 免受进一步的污染。

) B)英语习惯用从句(长句),而 汉语习惯用单句(短句)。

在考试中 要善于运用分译法,用汉语的短句来 表达英语长句的内容。

例如: In warmer areas primitive man could use branches to make a framework which be then covered with leaves. ( 在气候较为温暖的地方,原始 人类能用树枝搭建屋架,外面用树叶 遮盖。

) C)英语习惯用名词表示行为动 作,汉语则往往相反。

例如:He paid a visit to an exhibition of advanced science and technology on Sunday. (星期天他参观了一个高科技展 览。

) D)表达时间、空间时,英语习惯 先小后大,汉语则往往相反。

例如:He was born in an out -ofway mountain village in South China at 2 a.m .on May6,1968. (他于 1968 年五月六日凌晨两点 出生于中国南部一个偏僻的小山村 里。

) 2)通过语境吃透全文 词语的理解离不开上下文,这是 我们在翻译中必须时刻牢记的一条。

英语中一词一义的情况极为罕见,只 有通过上下文才能了解单词的确切的 含义。

在翻译中,要特别注意以下三 个问题: A)认真把握多义词在语境中的特 定含义 例如:What you said sound reasonable. (你的话听起来有道理。

) His father gave him a sound beating.(他爸爸痛打他一顿。

) B)注意习惯用语的理解 英语历史悠久,拥有极为丰富的 习语,对习语的掌握程度往往决定一 个学习者的真实语言水平。

因而,考 试经常涉及这方面的内容。

,例如: I know this fellow from A to Z. (这家伙我非常了解。

) C)确定代词在上下文中的指代关 系 代词的理解更是离不开一定的语 境 .代词、代名词或者代动词在句中 指代的是什么只有在特定的语境中才 能确定。

对于代词的考查是英译汉常 考之内容。

在翻译中,有时代词只是 照字面译为“这、那”是远远不够的, 须将起代替的部分加以重述。

We have 365 days in a year.(一 年有 365 天。

)A big nation had its problems,a small nation has its advantages. (大国有大国的问题,小国有小国的 有利条件。

) 2.翻译技巧 1)词类的转译 名词、动词、形容词往往根据需 要转译为其他词类。

例如: My admiration for him grew more . (我对他越来越敬佩。

)(n.v.) He acted as if he were a teacher. (他的举止像个教师。

)(v.- n.) Man differs from animals in that he is able to speak(人类与 动物的区别在于他会讲话。

(v -n) The new treaty would be good for ten years.(新条约有效期为十 年。

)( adj- n.) 2)词的增补 在翻译过程中,经常遇到这种情 况:英文原文中某些词语,无法用一 般字典中相对应的汉语释义表达出 来。

翻译时考生应根据原文的意思, 活用字典,用地道的汉语表达出来。

有时要根据英语动词时态形式增补时 间修饰语,有时要增补原文中的省略 部分,有时要把代词还原为所指的对 象,有时要增补连接词以加强修辞效 果。

例如: They are working on my bike. (他们正在修理我的自行车。

) He remained though he was badly ill.(虽然病得很重,但是他还是留 了下来。

) We found him at his book in the library.(我们发现他在图书馆看 书。

) 3)定语从句的翻译 英语和汉语的定语都有前置、后 置之分。

但不同的是:英语以定语后 置为主:汉语则以前置为主,极少用 后置。

所以在翻译过程中,后置定语 的翻译是一大难题,尤其是定语从句 的翻译。

通常有两种译法:一是译作 前置定语;一是采用分译法。

限制性定语从句一般可按前置修 饰语译作“……的”。

例如;This is the reason why an airplane sometimes must taxi a long way before taking off. (这就是为什么飞机在起飞之前 有时必须滑行一段长路的原因。

)非限制性定语从句大多在句中起 补充说明的作用,翻译时不改变其语 序,而是根据其作用区别处理,有时 通过重复先行词将定语从句译为并列 句或独立句,有时加上连接词语,译 为转折、目的、结果、原因、让步。

、 条件、时间等状语从句。

例如:In Southern France a solar furnace has been built,where temperature reach more than3,000 centigrade(在法国南部己经建造了 一座太阳炉,炉温高达摄氏 3000 度以 上。

) Copper,which is used so widely for carrying electricity,offers very little resistance. (铜的电阻很小,所以非常广泛 地用来输电。

) 3.做题步骤 考生要遵循三个基本要求,即 “忠实、通顺、易懂”。

译文要力求 忠实原文,能直译则直译。

也就是说 如果直译出来的汉语通顺就直译,不 便于直译的英语句子在处理时,要力 求在忠实于原文的基础上,使译文通 顺。

英译汉做题的步骤应该是: 1)了解段落大意。

通过把握主题段或主题句快速了 解短文的主题思想,理解对于翻译短 文是相当重要的,先思考,再动笔, 不要反复涂改。

有的考生往往是拿到 试卷就开始翻译,“只见树木不见森 林”,等译不下去了再回读,那样做 既费时间又影响情绪。

2)理解和表达。

这是英译汉应试中的实质性阶 段。

鉴于试题具有一定的难度,尤其 是长句的翻译,要在准确理解的基础 上,按照汉语的表达习惯,用地道的 汉语表达出来。

3)校改 校改是一个不可缺少的环节。

考 试过程中,考生不能像平时那样从容 不迫,初译时往往侧重于理解,容易 忽视译文的连贯性,从而译出英语式 的汉语句子。

所以,译完后要回过来 看一看译文是否通顺连贯。

还有一个 不可忽略的问题是书写,一份整洁的 答卷会取悦于判卷老师,也等于成功 了一半。

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