英文论文格式

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导读:2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30A Syntactic Study on the Englishization of Modern Written Chinese: Take Beijing Youth Daily As a Case (标题 三号粗体)I. Introduction (一级标题 四

2015英语论文格式.doc
2015英语论文格式.doc

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30A Syntactic Study on the Englishization of Modern Written Chinese: Take Beijing Youth Daily As a Case (标题 三号粗体)I. Introduction (一级标题 四号粗体)(本部分重点:选题动机,国内外研究趋势,本研究价值) It is noticed in the English to Chinese translation course that some of the complex compound sentences tend to be translated into rather long Chinese sentences with basically the same English sequence and the form of its original one. What really piques my interest is such long Chinese sentences with obvious English features are well accepted by Chinese youth and some young writers in China build their sentences with large amount of Englishized Chinese structures in their works. In the meantime, the study of English as lingual Franca or global language which definitely impacts Chinese language has become an important aspect of English language and culture studies. Some of features of English are believed to penetrate into Chinese language not only at the vocabulary level but also syntax one, especially in the past three decades after the adoption of the policy of reform and opening. This penetration is shown by the enforcement of policy that since 2010, the General Administration of Press and Publication of China has banned English words interspersed in Chinese publications. It may be a proof of language over contact. And the fact is prevailing that the longer sentences with three or even five attributes are much more accepted especially by the young people than before, while standard Chinese sentences are suggested to be short sentences whose form is often compared to the structure of bamboo. This phenomenon, termed Englishization by some scholars (Wang, Xie etc.), is the manifestation of language contact. (正文 小四号字 Times New Rome 1.5 倍行距,页面设置为上下左右均是 2.5 厘米,和系毕业论文要求一致) So, this study is hoped to find out at what level that English has affected Chinese language by the systematic and methodical analysis of data collected from newspaper.II. Literature Review1

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30(有重要概念先界定概念;另国、内外研究两部分如出现不均衡现象,即国外研究或者 国内研究过少,可合为一各部分。

) 2.1 Language contact and Englishization (二级标题 小四号粗体) There is a common view in the theoretical literature that Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact (Thomason &Terrence). When the speakers of different language interact with each other in a variety of ways, their languages normally influence each other as well. But English language, as the main carrier of publications, entertaining industry products and academic delivery of the world business and issues, influences Chinese language in a macro and relatively unilateral way, without specific interaction between individual speakers. During the evolvement of all human languages, every single of which is influenced by languages of other races periodically or constantly, distinctive features of languages vary in degrees (Guo 21-24). Therefore, the ignorance of language contact leads to the obscurity of full understanding of language change. According to Sarah Thomason, there are basic five forms of language contact: borrowing of vocabulary (loanwords), adoption of other language features, language shift, stratal influence and creation of new language. As the very first form of language contact, loan words are already taken by Chinese language when some English words directly diffuse into Chinese like DVD, check-in, etc., Chinese has taken on syntax features of English as well. And this influence may be non-mutual or one-sided, which means English language remains relatively free from the Chinese influence. And this process, as is called Englishization to describe the transformation, takes place in non-English cultures and languages as a result of exposure to the English language (Tam). And it has been regarded as a social problem and affects the life of so many people. When focusing on just the language, Chinese linguist He Yang points out that Englishization of Chinese refers to not only newly burgeoning grammatical items and syntax formats stemming from the imitation of application of English language, but the rapid emergence of grammar forms which are in dormancy or germination in Chinese language stimulated or catalyzed by English (He Yang 82-89). 2.2 Relevant studies2

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30The study of language contact is called contact linguistics which has been mature theory for decades. While it focuses on how two languages interact, little information has been acquired in the area of Englishization. Still some argumentations have been made in Englishization of Korean and Japanese language. And the Englishization of Chinese is mainly discussed by Chinese scholars since this issue demands attainments of English as well as Chinese language. The linguistic professor of Beijing University, Wang Li, is the first person in China who has systematically studies this grammatical change of Chinese language. Europeanization of Chinese, as he called at that time, mainly deals with the increase of sentence length, Chinese conjunctions and word sequence of Chinese language by comparing sentences in the book Dream of the Red Chamber, which is finished in the second half of 18th century and considered the standard Chinese, with that in the articles composed during the period from the New Culture Movement (around the time of the May 4th Movement in 1919) to his time 1950s. He expresses his concern on the grammatical shifts of Chinese as a big issue in Chinese language history. And his study is regarded as the milestone of the study on Europeanization of Chinese language. However, all Wang Li’s study sets its foothold on the translation principle which he believes leads to Europenization of Chinese. And he himself even admits it is hard to apply the method of pure objective description in the study as Europeanization is a gradual change which involves subjective judgment on the standard of Europeanization. In addition, the obviously out-dated corpus has far outpaced the change of Chinese language as decades passed. The bilingual environment of Hong Kong due to historical reasons makes a perfect source for the study of Englishization of Chinese. Scholars and linguists Shi Dingxu, Zhu Zhiyu and Wang Canlong in Hong Kong discuss the Englishization of written Cantonese. Under the direction of basic theory of language transfer, they argue that there are variations in the syntactic structure of Hong Kong written Chinese, including calque forms, loan structures and words (Shi & Zhu 4-12). Those studies provide us with the scientific perspective of language transfer, when considering Englishization of Chinese. However, Hong Kong Cantonese, as the dialect of Chinese, differentiates from the standard Mandarin used in mainland.3

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30The same problem exists as the similar study is conducted in Taiwan back in 1990s. But modern Chinese morphology is taken into account by Taiwan scholars Hsu. And she thinks the mechanism of those features are initiated by translation of western literary works, and the compatibility of Englishized structures and original Chinese determines the range of application of Englishized Chinese and people’s attitude towards it, after the analysis of limited empirical data collected from newspapers, magazines, and creative literary texts (Hsu 167-184). Mainland scholar He Ye carries out a similar study and discusses the influence of English upon Chinese grammar since opening to the outside world, by the systematic and methodical analysis of the corpus, Beijing Youth Daily among the years of 1956, 1982, 2000. The authentic statistics makes the study scientific and convincing. It is suggested in this study that Chinese sentence length continues to increase, attributive capacity is reinforced and the head noun of a sentence becomes more various (He Ye 129-145). Scientific statistics keep this study from subjective judgments to the largest extend, although only three aspects of Enlishization are taken into consideration in this study, which may barely reflect the whole picture of Englishization of Chinese. And it is a pity that there is no basic and nuclear linguistic theory supporting the survey, apart from the discussion based on the data base. It is also worthy of noting that the enthusiasm of study on Englishization has been declined in the past decade due to the reasons: one is people stop noticing any Englishization since people already live in an Englishized Chinese environment where Englishized Chinese is so rooted in the language that people fail to distinguish the standard Chinese the way it should be; the other reason is that the national dignity prevents from admitting Englishization in Chinese language (Zhang Minglin 43-46). In summary, most studies on the Englishization of Chinese language are carried out by Chinese scholars. Those early studies by the eighty’s and ninety’s generation of linguists forms into the climate that sets the keynote for the subsequent study, but severely out dated as the social context has enormously changed as well as language itself since opening policy is adopted in China decades ago. And Englishization of Chinese in regions like Hong Kong and Taiwan cannot stand for the standard Chinese Mandarin used in mainland. The study of Mainland illustrates and classifies the language shifts to a degree but lacks the backbone of4

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30the basic linguistic theory. 2.3 Significance of present study (具体指明论文成果在哪些方面有创新点:是研究内容新、研究资料新、研究视角新、 研究方法新, 还是研究的结论新或深广度不同?本研究的理论价值和实践价值是什么? 文学类的研究对文论、作家、作品、文学史等方面的研究有何贡献?翻译类的研究对翻 译理论、翻译实践、翻译教学等方面的研究有何贡献、指导意义或实际价值?语言学类 的对语言学习和教学有何启示?文化类的对语言学习和文化研究有何意义?) English certainly influences Chinese language not only in the vocabulary level but also syntactical one in a subtle and unnoticeable way, which may remind us the Englishization of Chinese has been an inevitable trend. But the latest study has been traced back to eight years ago which leaves space for discussion since language changes rapidly. Therefore, further investigations are needed in order to find new changes generated as English is embraced by Chinese society to a larger extent than before. The status of development of English in China can be reflected by this diachronic research. Both English and Chinese language learners may also gain the knowledge about the linguistic changing process so as to improve their learning strategy. And hopefully this paper may even provide material or evidence for the further study of social change or cultural contact by related scholars.III. Methodology(文学研究的研究方法部分不必按如下 3.1——3.4 框架介 绍,改为介绍分析的理论基础(包括理论产生的背景、理论的内涵和理论的代表性概念)和研究方法,如从某个理论角度进行文本分析,以及研究方法的具体运用等)3.1 Subject (一般实证性研究对象为人,标题为 subjects) Considering the feasibility, the present study was designed as He Ye’s further research of the influence of English upon Chinese grammar by duplicating his method in data collection. The authentic statistics of the years of 1956, 1982 and 2000 is accessible and remained valid. But only one more year ’s analysis of the Beijing Youth Daily of 2010 will be carried out as the major statistics to compare with those in previous years for this further discussion of5

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30Englishization of modern Chinese, since 10 years passed and English has been far more embraced than before. 3.2 Instruments (一般实证性研究都有调查工具,如试卷,问卷,访谈提纲,课堂观察 等;本部分主要介绍研究工具的设计思路、内容,必要时候可介绍题型,各题型数目等 等) 3.2 Data collection (利用调查工具收集数据的过程) The newspaper Beijing Youth Daily of the entire year 2010 is available in the Library of Beijing University. In order to keep this paper within a manageable size, this research will randomly adopte four Tuesday articles of every month from the whole year 2010 of Beijing Youth Daily, two from the top left corner of news page, and the other two from the top left corner of literature column, about 600 words for each article, 48 articles, 30,000 words in total, in case the disturbance of incredibility caused by different literary forms, together with the data of 1956, 1982 and 2000 as the language corpus for this study. 3.3 Data analysis (数据将采用何种方式进行分析,如 Excel, SPSS 等等) Descriptive statistical analysis will be the major method adopted in this research. Focusing on the corpus of 2010, the statistics in respects of the sentence length, attributive capacity of head nouns were analyzed and compared with that of 1956, 1982, and 2000 to make this a diachronic research.IV. Possible findings (1. 简要陈述研究会得出的结论;2.指明具体的研究重点和难点并提出具体的解决方案) Hopefully, the result of this research will consist with and even further strengthen the conclusion reached by previous studies: changes in sentence length, attributive capacity and its head noun are ongoing. Chinese sentences are getting longer; attributive capacity is enhanced; head nouns become heavier. Some newly generated phenomenon are hoped to be found by this research as well. However, as an undergraduate thesis, this research is so limited by my individual ability that the more profound and abstract changing pattern or model is hardly brought forward. The corpus is not comprehensive enough as well since there is only one press which may be6

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30narrowed and tendentious. What’s more, colloquial Chinese is not covered, which should be taken into account when considering language changing.Works Cited (三号 粗体)HSU, Jialing. “Englishization and Language Change in Modern Chinese in Taiwan.” World Englishes 2 (1994): 167-184. Tam, Kwok-kan. “Englishization in Asia: Language and Cultural Issues.” Shaw College Symposium. Hong Kong, November, 2003. Thomason, Sarah and Kaufman, Terrence. Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. University of California Press, 1988. Thomason, Sarah. Language Contact - An Introduction: Edinburgh University Press, 2001. Tsao, Fengfu. “Englishization of Chinese morphology and syntax in the past two hundred years.” Studies in English Literature and Linguistics 4 (1978): 41-54.郭鸿杰. 现代汉语欧化研究综述. 西安外国语大学学报, 2007, (3): 21-24. 贺阳. 从现代汉语介词中的欧化现象看间接语言接触. 语言文字应用, 2004, (4): 82-89. 何烨. 改革开放以来英语对汉语句法的影响. 四川外语学院学报, 2004, (5): 129-145. 石定栩, 朱志瑜, 王灿龙. 香港书面汉语中的英语句法迁移. 外语教学与研究, 2003, (3): 4-12. 王力. 中国现代语法. 北京:商务印书馆, 1985. 余光中. 余光中谈翻译. 北京:中国对外翻译出版公司, 2002. 谢耀基. 现代汉语欧化语法概论. 香港:商务印书馆, 1990.7

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30翻译类 Chinglish in Chinese-English Translation of Official Publicity MaterialI. IntroductionSince the adoption of the reform and opening up policy in 1978, China has exerted more influence on the outside world. Meanwhile, the process of globalization has also elevated the political, economic and cultural exchanges between China and the rest of the world to a new level. Official publicity material, as a bridge between Chinese people and people of other countries, plays an important role in such international communications, disseminating Chinese culture and ideology and stating clearly its policies and political stands in international affairs. Hence the study on translation of publicity material is extremely meaningful. However, it’s worth noting that, though people have tried for decades to eliminate Chinglish which, they believe, would do harm to China’s image, it could still be found in Chinese publicity material, leading to difficulties in communication or evenmisunderstandings. Given the obvious differences between Chinese and English, it is indeed hard to eliminate Chinglish as most of the translators would be influenced by the mother tongue, but there must be some ways through which we can reduce Chinglish to the minimum. Therefore, this thesis aims to find out how to improve the quality of Chinese-English translation of China’s official publicity material.II. Literature Review2.1 Publicity material With the process of globalization, China’s communication with the outside world is ever increasing, and of course, the demand of translation of publicity material is at the same time increasing. As this thesis deals with Chinglish in publicity materials, a good knowledge of publicity material would be essential.8

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-302.1.1 Definition of publicity material …. 2.1.2 Characteristics of the translation of official publicity material … 2.2 Chinglish Noted as a special linguistic phenomenon , Chinglish frequently appeared in the communication between China and the world and has drawn great attention ever since its debut.. 2.2.1 Definition of Chinglish 2.2.2 China English V.S Chinglish 2.2.3 Causes of Chinglish2.3 Translation procedures proposed by Nida According to Nida, there are three technical procedures for translators to follow. These procedures are very helpful for translators to avoid Chinglish, as it allows us to look deeper into the process of translation, enabling us to find our problems in each step that lead to Chinglish. These procedures are: 1) 2) … 2.4 Significance of the study Since the reform and opening up, China has paid more and more attention to its cross-cultural communication with the world. Accordingly, language has played a vital role in bridging different cultures. However, Chinglish in publicity material being the case, language can also be an obstacle of the communication when things are ill translated. With such a common problem, this thesis is of great significance as it is worth scholars’ and translators’ time and effort to facilitate the communication with the outside world by avoiding or even removing Chinglish in translation. The significance of the present study lies in that it probes into the differences between Chinese and English at lexical and syntactical level to avoid Chinglish. There have been lots9

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30of researches done in this field, but previous studies mostly focus on the relationship between language and culture rather than to the language itself. In fact, many translators do not deliver satisfactory translation not because they cannot realize the cultural difference of Chinese and English, but because they cannot apply their knowledge of the lexical and syntactical differences between the two languages. All translation problems boil down to this root.III. MethodologyThe contrastive analysis will be the major method adopted in this thesis. The analysis of problems is supported by abundant examples. These examples come from official documents or publications, formal speeches or works by political leaders, diplomatic talks, etc, among which the yearly government work reports serves as the main source of analysis, as their English versions had been carefully completed and proof read by the Central Compilation and Translation Bureau and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and would, therefore, be more authoritative and authentic. With the help of the analysis, the author will compare the lexical and syntactic differences between Chinese and English at first place, and then put forward suggestions for avoiding Chinglish.IV. Possible findingsThe research will first of all make it clear for the readers the differences between Chinese and English both lexically and syntactically. Then, by comparing these differences and by analyzing the characteristics of official publicity material, the author will show how to avoid Chinglish in each stage of translation process. However, this research bears its own limitations. The political neologisms, which is in constant need for translation as new phenomenon and policies arise, sometimes can also be translated into Chinglish, have not been covered in this thesis. Therefore, while discussing Chinglish at lexical level, future researches should also take political neologisms into consideration.10

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30Works CitedBright, William. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press, 1992. Nida, Eugene A. Towards A Science of Translating. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2004. Pinkham, Joan. The Translator’s Guide to Chinglish. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000.丁衡祁. 对外宣传中的英语质量亟待提高. 中国翻译,2002, (4) :44-46. 段连城. 呼吁:请译界同仁都来关心对外宣传. 中国翻译,1990, (5) :2-10. 葛传槊. 漫谈汉译英问题. 翻译通讯, 1980, (2) :91-92. 王弄笙. 汉英翻译下的 Chinglish. 中国翻译,2000, (2) :31-35. 吴景荣、程镇球. 新时代汉英大词典. 北京:商务印书馆,2001. 庄绎传. 也谈中式英语. 中国翻译,2002, (6) :7-10.文学类框架The Shaping of Self-realization in Emily Dickson’s Poetry through the Practice and Embodiment of TranscendentalismI. Introduction (一级标题 四号粗体)(本部分主要介绍作家简介,特别是作家的写作特点,文风,本研究选题的目 的和意义)II. Literature Review(回顾作家或者/和本研究着重分析的作品的国内外研究,即文综,以及从对以往研究 的总结和评价中证明本研究价值。

如果涉及从某种理论视角下分析文学作品,写作思 路是:先介绍作品相关研究,后介绍理论和理论分析框架,最后说明用此理论分析本 作品的优势和意义,即说明了本研究的价值。

) Notes: 1. 文学分析中,如果不涉及某种理论,常见写法是可以把文综部分合并到导论中 2. 所谓本研究的价值,主要是谈创新点,即:具体指明论文在哪些方面有创新或与众 不同,即要指明是研究内容新、研究资料新、研究视角新、研究方法新、研究的结 论新或研究的深度、广度不同等。

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2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30(1)全面综述与研究内容有关的国内外文献,包括主要学派/研究者、代表性研究 成果、代表性理论/观点、研究发展脉络。

(2)客观评价已有研究成果,具体指出已有研究的优点和缺点/不足,分析缺点/不 足形成的原因。

(3) 指明选题研究内容与已有研究成果之间的联系, 即指明当前研究是对已有研究 的扩展提升、应用推广、补充修正,还是对相同内容的换视角或换方法研究。

III. Methodology(本部分主要根据研究焦点问题,交待所选方法的具体运用,并适当用举例方法说明本论文的分析方法。

)IV. Possible findings (1. 简要陈述研究会得出的结论,指出研究的价值或意义:阐明成果的理论价值或应用价值,即对文论、作家、作品、文学史等方面的研究有何贡献; 2.指明具体的研究 重点和难点并提出具体的解决方案)体育文化类Values in Sports News between China and the United States: Take Yao Ming’s Retirement as a CaseI. IntroductionMany researches about the differences between China and the United States has been done since the Reform and Open up Policy of China in last century. As leading power of Western and Eastern culture, China and the United States have a large gap in values. And the media is a perfect tool to show people’s perspectives and easy to get research documents. Sport becomes an essential part of people’s leisure life and someone even makes living for it. Therefore, it’s worthy that studying the values in sports news, which locates in a growth industry in the world, the sports industry. Yao Ming, a sport icon in the world, announced retirement in Shanghai, July 20th, 2011. He is the first Chinese basketball superstar who made a huge success during his 9-years’career in NBA (National Basketball Association of the United States) and has great12

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30possibilities now to be selected into the Basketball Hall of Fame. His retirement attracted amounts of attentions of the world, particularly the people in China and the United States and their media. But the differences between two countries are huge, which cause many conflicts. The values are the core element to show how people to think and what the people might to do. And the differences of news report can be one of the indicators of those conflicts, especially to reveal people’s different perspectives and their values. And the retirement of Yao, which is one of the biggest events in two countries’ sports area, could be a perfect case in this thesis. Through the researching, studying and comparison on the relevant news of this event, the different values between China and the United States which were reflected in sports news can be more easily to find and conclude. Many researches have been made on values, but the researches on values reflected in sports news are relatively weak. And this thesis may full the blanks in the study of values in sports news.II. Literature review2.1 Main Concepts 2.1.1 Differences of values The difference of values is an important part of cultural differences between China (People’s Republic of China) and the United States which represents the western cultures and the eastern cultures respectively. Wang Wenjie argued that Chinese and Americans put their attention on two extreme sides— Collectivism and Individualism (Wang Wenjie 12). These two obvious values are influenced by their philosophies. Chinese traditional philosophy theories, which direct Chinese people to realize the ego and the nature in the way of introspection and pursue the harmony of people, nature and society, affect Chinese people tend to collectivism (Li 1). On the contrary, the citizens of the United States prefer the individualism because the tradition that the respect and compliment from society only depend on your personal achievement by hard-working (Wang Jingtang 45-46). Li also argued on that Americans were influenced by the idealism more than pragmatism, which push citizens working harder to create history and perfecting their life, while Chinese’s pragmatism pulls people to change the reality (Li 2). Collectivism and individualism,13

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30pragmatism and idealism are distinct and main focus on this thesis. 2.1.2 Sports and social values. Sports is an essential part in citizens’ life both in China and the United States. And it’s also an important part among various cultural areas. Athletes’ achievements in international sports event could be stored as collective memory among citizens, which also have function to construct the nation identity and national characteristics (Nie 6). And in 1993, Gruneau and Whitson argued on that, in some way, sport has some significances to be described as a cultural element and finally become a symbolic site reflecting a society’s struggles and conflicts (Gruneau and Whitson 12). The values are deeply rooted in nations’ sport. And th e functions sport has on different nations demonstrate their distinct social, historical, political and cultural awareness of their citizens (Nie 7). And Sage contended that values are inculcated in American sport to bolster nationalism and the legitimacy of its ideology (Sage 116-18). Sports as a part of culture, is a window to seek the differences of values. 2.1.3 Sports news report and values The characteristics of news report are deeply rooted in cultural values of human being. And she also argued that as a subculture element, news reports could not only display the features of nations’ ideology, social systems and the social structure, but also show the views and beliefs of life directly (Gao 3-4). Therefore, the sports news, as an important part and source of daily news, sports news could also display and demonstrate the ideology, social elements, the beliefs of citizens and views. Besides that, sports news also provide abundant sources and documents for collecting and researching in this thesis. With the feature of short, simple and instant, sports news could demonstrate values better and more directly. In the word of news report, values could be found out and analysis directly and genuinely. 2.2 Previous Studies Researchers in China and the United States tend to do many comparisons between two countries recent years. As the representatives of western culture and eastern culture, China and the United States are distinct in many fields. Among the studies about sports news and cultural values, many researchers, at home and abroad, have provided hundreds of sources to search and study. As for studies abroad, supervised by Dr. Nicholas M. Waranabe, Tie Nie published his14

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30paper about the national identity in sport media. The development of national identity is related to many cultural elements and it’s also a part of the cultural system. His paper provides the support both in methodologies and theories. It analyses the relationship between nation identity and sport and the relationship between nation identity and the sport media (Nie 6-8). Many abroad studies are covered in his paper, such as Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities: Reflections of the Origins and Spread of Nationalism and Tomlinson Alabarces’s Argentina versus England at the France 98 World Cup: narratives of nation and the mythologizing of the popular. In terms of the studies in China. Gao Jinping first did research about sports news report. Took the reports of Sydney Olympic Games in China Daily and New York Times as the case, she basically argued the differences of sports news report and cultural views behind that between Chinese and the United States (Gao 33-35). Many details in report and cultural concepts were included in her paper and started to be combined in a strong relationship. After that, culture researches in sports news report flourish in recent decades. Zhang Yanan made the cross-cultural comparison of sports reports between China and the United States in 2007. Her paper covers many comparisons in cultural and national backgrounds (Zhang Yanan). And there are some papers focusing on the negative parts. For example, Liu Huanyu in Hu Nan Normal University, did a research paper on nationalism in sports reporting, which reminds readers paying attention to the extreme nationalism in news report and getting used to the beneficial part of it (Liu). And some scholars move attention on linguistics study. Zhang Shirong’s paper The Contrastive Study of Attitudinal and Engagement Resources and Cultural Interpretations of English Sports News offers a new field (Zhang Shirong). 2012, Li Jiakui issued his research paper about comparison of values between Chinese sport culture and American sport culture, which covers many values, such as collectivism, individualism, optimism, pessimism, the view of past, the view of future, idealism and pragmatism in two countries’ sport culture (Li 152-153). But it lacks detailed analysis and argument and the statement takes a large part. 2.3 Significance of Present Study Although many studies cover the cultural elements and the sport report, most of them are only aimed at the language of journalism and the culture in news reporting. And in culture15

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30researches, most of them are comparison and general introductions without deep analysis, such as in Li’s thesis, he just enumerated and stated the differences and its reasons between China and the United States, without examples and quotations from others and sports affairs. And many subjective definitions occurred in his thesis. In Zhang Yanan and Zhang Shirong’s papers, they showed an informative studying mode in the research of sports news reports, but their points lied more on linguistics than on value and culture studies. Wang Wenjie’s thesis on cross-culture communication and comparison in values also supplied documents for this thesis, while he put more attention on the comparison about social background and cultural background between China and the United States. It’s a kind of historicism view. And the papers focusing on the values in sports are absent. Some papers’ perspectives are a little bit narrow. Liu only studied on nationalism in sports news report and Tie Nie focused on the representation of national identity in sports news report. This thesis will meet the absence and try to build up the contact between values and sports news reporting in a relatively moderate degree. Yao Ming is the sport icon both in China and the United States. His retirement is the most shocking event in basketball. The United State, which embraces the best sports industry in the world, and China, which puts much attention on basketball since Yao came into NBA in 2002, have enough materials to be analyzed. So taking Yao Ming’s retirement as the case could obtain and conclude the features and differences of values in sport reporting between the two countries.III. MethodologyThe contrastive analysis will be the major method adopted in this thesis. The analysis of problems is supported by abundant examples which from the representative media. These examples come from four major media in China and the United States (New York Times and China Daily, two authoritative integrated newspapers in two countries), (ESPN and Sina NBA Channel, two top professional sports-oriented media in two countries). The scripts and sentences from those examples which indicate values and thoughts will be selected, quoted and analyzed in this thesis. With the help of the analysis and the former researches, the author16

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30will compare the differences of values in sports news which reflected between China and the United States at the first place, and then put forward suggestions for cross-culture communication and the understanding between Western culture and Eastern culture.IV. Possible FindingsThe research will first of all make it clear for the readers the differences of values in sports news and how the values reflect in those sports news scripts between China and the United States. Then, by comparing the differences and analyzing the examples and the press scripts, the author will give several recommendations on the cross-culture communication and help readers understand the culture differences better. However, this research bears its own limitations. The researches on values have been mentioned thousands of times, while the values in sports news are tentative exploration. And only several values concepts will be covered in this thesis, which means the integrated and systematic conclusion might not be found here. Besides that, materials and news contents may have some mistakes and some parts of them may be lost because it has been four years since Yao’s announcement of his retirement. Therefore, future researchers should collect more documents and cases for analysis and complete relevant studies into more systematic and complex.Works CitedGruneau, Richard and David Whitson. Hockey night in Canada: Sport, identities and cultural politics. Toronto, Canada: Garamond Press, 1993. Nie, Tie. “National identity representation in sport media: The case of China and the U.S.” Diss. University of Missouri, 2013. Sage, George H. Power and Ideology in America Sport. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998.高金萍. 就《人民日报》与《纽约时报》的悉尼奥运报道论中美新闻文化的差异性. 新闻传播与研17

2013 级学术论文写作姓名:学号:班级:手机:提交日期:2016-6-30究 , 2001,(2): 33-35. 刘焕宇. 论体育报道中的民族主义情节. 湖南师范大学硕士论文, 2008. 李加奎. 价值观视域下的中美体育文化比较. 教学与管理,2012,(33):152-153. 王文洁. 中美体育报道的跨文化比较. 武汉体育学院硕士论文, 2007. 王锦瑭. 美国社会文化. 武汉:武汉大学出版社, 1996. 张世蓉. 评价理论框架下中美英文体育报道介入资源研究及文化阐释——以北京和伦敦奥运会对刘 翔事件的英文报道为例. 疯狂英语(教师版), 2014,(1):25-26. 张亚男. 中美英文体育报道中态度和介入资源比较研究及文化阐释 ——以北京和伦敦奥运会刘翔 事件为例. 兰州理工大学硕士论文, 2014.18

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